Genus Taraxacum (Asteraceae), having ∼60 sections and 2,800 species, is known for its complicated evolutionary relationships and taxonomy due to processes like frequent hybridization, polyploidization, asexual reproduction, clonality and low structural morphological variability. Various taxonomical concepts and approaches are reviewed, evaluated and discussed from point of view of their ability to deal with such a complicated genera as is Taraxacum. Various processes responsible for the complicated situation within Taraxacum are discussed and reviewed.
R is nowadays probably the most powerful tool for statistics of all types. There are plenty of modules available for work with molecular data. Those will be introduced during the course. Previous knowledge of R is useful, but not necessary. If there is at least one participant not speaking Czech, the course will be in English.
Don’t be afraid of command line! It is friendly and powerful tool. Practically identical is command line also in Apple osX, BSD and another UNIX-based systems, not only in Linux. Basic knowledge of Linux is not conditional. Course will be taught in Linux, but most of the point are applicable also for another UNIX systems like osX. Knowledge of Linux/UNIX is useful e.g. for working with molecular and another data. MetaCentrum is service provided by CESNET allowing access to huge computational capacity.
This year we can remind plenty of "eighth" anniversaries, including year 1938. Czechoslovakia was target of operation we use to call a hybrid war nowadays. Aggressor was not Putin's Russia, which is nowadays more (Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, ...) or less (EU, North America) systematically destabilizing states, where it has power ambitions. That time aggressor was Hitler's Germany, which (similarly to contemporary Russia) misused its minorities in countries of central and eastern Europe to their destabilization and conquest.
Diploid populations of Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) in Central Europe exhibit an extensive variation, with two conspicuous morphotypes. One, corresponding to the lectotype of V. officinalis, is larger, with broader, distinctly dentate leaflets, the other is in many respects similar to V. pratensis Dierb. and V. stolonifera Czern., but is glabrous, with narrow, usually entire leaflets. The two forms also differ in their ecological optimum and in geographical distribution, but are linked with numerous intermediates.